By Akemi Huynh, Student of Nutritional Sciences at North Carolina Central University with the supervision of the Duke Lifestyle & Weight Management Center Nutrition Team
Do you ever open the refrigerator door and stand there looking for something to eat? And then suddenly you wonder if you’re hungry? Before we make decisions about if and what to eat, it’s important to understand why we are eating.
The answer to this seemingly simple question is rather complex because this decision is influenced by hunger and appetite. We need to learn about what influences the desire to eat, how to distinguish between different types of hunger, increase mind-body awareness, and know our options when experiencing emotional hunger.
Hunger is the physiological, or physical, urge to consume food. Hunger is regulated by our body’s internal network of hormones, organs, and body systems. Appetite is the psychological, or non-physical, urge to consume food. Appetite is influenced by several factors such as preferences, culture, food marketing, psychological state, social conditions, food cost and availability, and environmental cues.1
Physical hunger develops gradually over some time. It often occurs several hours after a meal and is accompanied by physical symptoms such as hunger pangs, stomach noises, decrease in energy, difficulty concentrating and making decisions, lightheadedness, headache, shakiness, irritability, and even nausea. With physical hunger, one experiences satisfaction after eating, and this hunger disappears after reaching satiety. Non-physical hunger tends to have a quick onset and is unrelated to the timing of the most recent meal, and can persist despite a person reaching physical satiety. After eating to fulfill non-physical hunger, one often experiences negative feelings such as guilt and shame. 2
Michelle May, M.D. explains that humans are born knowing when and how much to eat but that they lose our awareness of these cues.3 To help re-develop a practice of checking in with the body, ask yourself these questions:
Using hunger cues to inform eating decisions increases the likelihood of making healthier food choices, reducing overconsumption, and increasing meal satisfaction. In a randomized clinical trial of individuals with obesity, participants in the treatment group implemented mindful eating practices to increase awareness and management of physical hunger, fullness, satisfaction, cravings, emotions, and triggers.4 Compared to the control group, individuals in the treatment group had significantly lower fasting glucose, maintained a reduction in consumption of sweets, and were more successful in maintaining weight loss more than 6 months after the conclusion of the study.
“The hunger scale is a way to measure how hungry or how full you are feeling. Our clients find it is easy to describe or imagine the extreme ends of the scale, like starving/ravenous as level 1 or bloated/stuffed as level 7. However, it is necessary to slow down and pay attention to detect the small differences between feeling neutral and moderately hungry or moderately full/satisfied.” – Christine Tenekjian, RDN, at the Duke Lifestyle & Weight Management Center says.
Dr. May lists three options for how to deal with non-physical hunger.5
You’ve assessed your body’s signs and made an intentional decision to eat, which means that guilt is not warranted. Remember that even though eating can result in temporary satisfaction, it can also result in physical discomfort and regret.
If you can engage in an activity for 10 to 15 minutes, the urge to eat may pass. Moreover, each time you break the link between non-physical hunger and eating, you are strengthening new brain circuits and habits. When you wait to eat until there is a physical need, you’re more likely to enjoy the food. However, if you do not address the underlying urge for the non-physical hunger, the urge may resurface. Distracting activities include walking, talking on the phone, or meditating, but may require some planning if you know you’ll be in public or atypical environments like an airplane or a conference.
This is a worthwhile endeavor because it will produce the most sustainable success, however, it will require time, reflection, analysis, and perhaps professional help.
At the Duke Lifestyle and Weight Management Center, nutritionists can work with patients on learning how to use a hunger scale as one tool to develop mindful eating practices. Or join us for our September Nutrition Smarts Session: Intuitive Eating and the Hunger Fullness Scale.
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